Modern transhumanism originates in the mid to late-20th-century and conceptualizas of physical immortality through cryonics and the possibilities that nanotechnology has opened for the transformation of the human condition. It is becoming a growing (and very scary) philosophical and political movement as a means to become "better than human" or "posthuman", Transhumanism is characterized by an embrace of radical modification of human physiology and psychology to "transcend" the limitations of unmodified genome and human cultural choices. The transhumanist movement of today (2011) generally attempts to convince others of the essential optimism and value of transhumanist ideals. It has some political clout, as transhumanists are often major supporters of cutting-edge biotechnology. Transhumanists tend to support athiestic viewpoints over spiritual or religious ones. The movement publically urges the tolerance of baseline (or normal) humans but privately their chat groups are full of totalitarian and genocidal thinking. The theory of "superior ability breeds superior arrogance" is true with the majority of these people, who want to be better than the rest of humanity. While some goals of transhumanists are good, like removing genetic errors from the human gene pool like Parkinson's Disease and many other genetic disorders, their philosophy is more in line with the facist Nazi movement and many of its core ideas come from German philosophers. The most scary part about this group is their support of becoming "more than human" and then wiping out the rest of humanity, as seen from their thousands and thousands of private websites posts.
Information about Transhumanism (and "post humanism"), both for and against, can be found all across the Web.